Lubrication system (another name – lubrication system ) is designed to reduce friction between the associated parts of the engine. In addition to performing the main function, the lubrication system provides cooling of engine parts, removal of carbon deposits and wear, and protection of engine parts from corrosion.
The engine lubrication system includes an engine oil pan with an oil intake, an oil pump, an oil filter, an oil cooler, which are interconnected by highways and channels.
The engine oil pan is for storing oil. The oil level in the sump is monitored using a dipstick, as well as using a level and oil temperature sensor.
The oil pump is designed to pump oil into the system. The oil pump can be driven by the engine crankshaft, camshaft or additional drive shaft. Gear pumps have found the greatest application on engines.
The oil filter is used to clean oil from wear and deposits. Oil is cleaned with a filter element, which is replaced with an oil change.
An engine oil cooler is used to cool engine oil. The oil in the radiator is cooled by a fluid stream from the cooling system.
The oil pressure in the system is controlled by a special sensor installed in the oil line. An electrical signal from the sensor is sent to the signal lamp on the dashboard. On cars, an oil pressure gauge can also be installed.
The oil pressure sensor can be included in the engine control system, which, when a dangerous decrease in oil pressure, turns off the engine.
On modern engines, an oil level sensor and a corresponding warning lamp on the instrument panel are installed. In addition, an oil temperature sensor can be installed.
To maintain a constant working pressure in the system, one or more pressure reducing (overflow) valves are installed. Valves are installed directly in the elements of the system: oil pump, oil filter.
The principle of the lubrication system
In modern engines, a combined lubrication system is used, in which part of the parts is lubricated under pressure, and the other part is sprayed or by gravity.
The engine is lubricated cyclically. When the engine is running, the oil pump pumps oil into the system. Under pressure, the oil is fed into the oil filter, where it is cleaned of mechanical impurities. Then the oil flows through the channels to the main and connecting rod necks (bearings) of the crankshaft, camshaft bearings, upper connecting rod support for lubricating the piston pin.
Oil is supplied to the working surface of the cylinder through openings in the lower support of the connecting rod or using special nozzles.
The rest of the engine is spray lubricated. The oil that flows through the gaps in the joints is sprayed by the moving parts of the crank and gas distribution mechanisms. This creates an oil mist that settles on other parts of the engine and lubricates them.
Under the action of gravity, the oil flows into the pan and the lubrication cycle is repeated.
Some sports cars use a dry-sump lubrication system. In this design, the oil is stored in a special oil tank, where it is pumped from the crankcase by the pump. The engine crankcase is always left without oil – “dry crankcase”. The use of this design ensures stable operation of the lubrication system in all modes, regardless of the position of the oil intake and the oil level in the crankcase.
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