Faulty car systems
A car is a complex technical device in which many systems interact. Despite the high technology and reliability of a modern car, vehicle breakdowns periodically occur. Even the owner of a new car is not insured against malfunctions , and the warranty period is evidence of this.
When a malfunction occurs, two questions arise:
- troubleshooting (diagnostics);
- troubleshooting (repair).
We will try to answer both questions.
The process of assessing the technical condition of the car and identifying faults is called diagnostics . The volume of repair work and, consequently, the costs of its implementation depend on the quality of the diagnosis. Depending on the method of carrying out, the following types of diagnostics are distinguished:
- diagnostics by external signs (indirect diagnostics);
- technical diagnostics (direct diagnostics).
A car enthusiast endowed with knowledge of the design of the car is able to independently diagnose by external signs . This is doubly true if you are on the road and to the nearest car service for many kilometers.
Carrying out technical diagnostics requires special knowledge and skills, as well as the use of various devices. For this reason, technical diagnostics are carried out, as a rule, in specialized centers. A variety of technical diagnostics is computer diagnostics . Using special software, a check is made of the electronic components of the car.
An experienced driver constantly performs indirect vehicle diagnostics – from the moment of getting into the car to the final stop. This happens almost automatically. During the movement, the main attention is paid to the indications of instrumentation, as well as the characteristics of the movement: engine operation, stability, smoothness, ease of control, braking performance. Deviations from the standard parameters, as a rule, indicate a malfunction.
When diagnosing faults, the following principles must be followed:
- identification and accounting of all obvious facts, in other words, the establishment of all external signs of malfunction;
- conducting diagnostics from simple to complex, sequentially eliminating possible malfunctions.
As practice shows, a car system malfunction rarely occurs unexpectedly. External symptoms of malfunction appear gradually. It must be remembered that major malfunctions can be avoided if timely diagnosed and resolved minor malfunctions.
Symptoms of malfunctions corresponding to certain human senses can be divided into the following types:
- acoustic (hearing);
- visual (vision);
- operational (sense of smell and touch).
A particular malfunction may have several external symptoms. It can be both signs of one species, and their combination. For example, damage to the fuel system is accompanied by increased fuel consumption, as well as the smell of gasoline in the cabin and smudges under the car.
On the other hand, several faults may have similar external symptoms. For example, increased fuel consumption indicates a malfunction of the nozzles , as well as improper installation of the ignition timing, low tire pressure, etc.
The largest group consists of acoustic signs of malfunctions : all kinds of noises, knocks, squeaks, hum, rattle, crackling, etc. Sources of extraneous sounds are numerous, but the main ones are malfunctions of the engine, transmission, chassis and steering. Among motorists there is a popular saying: “A good knock will always come out.” Many understand it literally and operate the car to a specific failure. At the same time, the meaning of the saying is somewhat different – every extraneous sound in the car indicates an incipient malfunction. And the sooner we install it, the smaller consequences will be for the car and, accordingly, for our wallet. The most important thing is not to miss the diagnosis.
When there are extraneous sounds in the car, the driver must clearly understand at what sounds (read – faults) you can continue driving, and at which movement is strictly prohibited. For example, most extraneous sounds in the engine do not imply further operation of the car.
To diagnose a malfunction by sound, it is necessary to establish the nature of the sound, the source of propagation, as well as the change in sound when the speed increases and the direction of movement changes. Sound should be heard both inside the car and beyond, including in the engine compartment.
Visual fault diagnosis is made on the basis of the readings of instrumentation on the control panel, as well as through an external inspection of the car. During the external inspection, special attention is paid to the presence of smudges under the car, the condition of tires, and external lighting devices. Periodically conducted external inspection of systems and mechanisms in the engine compartment. Checks the level of oil and special fluids, the presence of smudges on the engine and gearbox, the integrity of the air pipes and electrical wiring.
By operating Symptom are signs was determined by smell and touch. Smells play an important role in the diagnosis of vehicle systems. So, the smell of gasoline in the cabin indicates a malfunction of the fuel system , the smell of exhaust gases (if it is not ahead of KamAZ) – a malfunction of the exhaust system, the smell of burnt engine oil – a malfunction of the lubrication system . A sweet chemical aroma appears when a coolant leaks – a malfunction of the cooling system . A burnt catalyst is accompanied by the smell of rotten eggs. It has its own specific smell and melting wiring of the car’s electrical equipment.
The human body is also actively involved in the diagnosis of malfunctions: arms, legs, “fifth point”, skin integuments. By touch, many faults are determined. For example, jerks during movement indicate a malfunction of the ignition system . Difficulties when shifting gears are manifested in case of a box malfunction . Failures of the suspension elements (springs, shock absorbers) are accompanied by a subsidence of the car. The increased travel of the brake pedal indicates a malfunction of the brake system, etc.
Thus, by external signs, many malfunctions can be determined, but not all, especially in the field of electronics. In many cases, a modern car requires technical diagnostics.
Each driver solves the problem of eliminating the identified malfunction independently. Some troubleshooting does not require special skills. At the same time, it is better to trust serious repair work to specialists.
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