The connecting rod forms an important link between the piston and the crankshaft , converting the translational motion of the former into the rotational motion of the latter.
In the engine, the connecting rod is exposed to significant variable loads, varying from tension to compression. Therefore, it must be durable, tough and light. Cranks are made of steel by casting or hot stamping. On sports cars, titanium alloy connecting rods can be installed.
The design of the connecting rod differs depending on the type of engine and its layout. The length of the connecting rod largely determines the height of the engine. The connecting rod is conditionally divided into three parts: a rod, a piston and a crank head.
The rod rod has, as a rule, an I-section. There are connecting rods with a round, rectangular, cross-shaped, H-shaped section of the rod. A channel is made in the connecting rod rod to supply oil to the piston head bearing.
The piston head is a one-piece eye in which a sleeve is installed with an interference fit – a sliding bearing for rotation of the piston pin. The sleeve is made of bronze or bimetallic (steel with lead, tin). The device of the piston head is determined by the size of the piston pin and the method of attachment. To reduce the mass of the connecting rod and reduce the load on the piston pin, some engines use connecting rods with a trapezoidal shape of the piston head.
The crank head provides a connecting rod with a crankshaft. On most engines, the crank head is detachable, due to the ICE assembly technology. The lower part of the head ( cover ) is connected to the connecting rod using bolts. Less commonly used is a pin or bandage connection of parts of the crank head. The connector can be straight (perpendicular to the axis of the rod) or oblique (at an angle to the axis of the rod). The oblique connector is used mainly on V-engines and allows you to make the engine block more compact.
To counter the transverse forces, the butt surfaces of the crank head are profiled. Distinguish gear, castle (rectangular ledges) connection. The most popular currently is the connection of the parts of the head obtained by the method of controlled splitting, the so-called split connector. Fault provides high precision joining parts.
The thickness of the crank head determines the length of the cylinder block. This is especially true for V- and W-shaped engines. For example, the thickness of the lower head of the Audi W12 connecting rod from Audi is only 13 mm.
A crank bearing, consisting of two liners, is placed in the crank head. Inserts are made multilayer – two-, three-, four- and even five-layer. The most popular two- and three-layer inserts. The two-layer insert is a steel base on which an anti-friction coating is applied. In a three-layer insert, an insulating pad separates the steel base and the antifriction layer.
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