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Causes of Excessive Tire Wear

In anticipation of seasonal tire fitting, some drivers, inspecting their winter tires, are surprised to find that with moderate mileage over the past season they wore out much more than expected. In order to avoid a similar situation in the future, it is important to pay attention to the main factors contributing to premature tire wear.


It is not safe to use summer tires in winter, but this does not stop everyone. There is such a category of drivers who can go on a winter set all summer. And although this is not explicitly prohibited, it is strongly discouraged to do so: the rubber compound has much more natural rubber, which provides the tires with softness at low temperatures – among other things, this means that in hot weather the winter tires wear out much more on the asphalt.

 Wheel alignment and tire pressure

Perhaps the most popular cause of tire problems is incorrect wheel alignment. Not all drivers follow the recommendations to adjust the wheel alignment after each intervention in the car’s suspension. If such a check is not done on time, it may subsequently turn out that the front or rear tire pair is “eaten” from the edges.

Competition with incorrect wheel alignment can be an equally popular reason for quick wear – incorrect tire pressure. Check tire pressure once every three weeks and be sure to – before a long trip.

Malfunctioning suspension

Setting the kinematics of the chassis is an extremely complex and responsible process, during which many factors are taken into account. Only after this, a new car model gets a ticket to the conveyor. At the same time, damage to the suspension during operation can immediately affect the condition of the tires: this is also indicated by multiple areas of increased tread wear. Such symptoms are an indication for visiting a service station and checking the suspension of a car.

Aggressive driving

Forcing curbs at speed leads to deformation of the tire carcass, which, although it has a margin of safety, does not return to its previous shape after certain loads. In the most severe cases, a dent or a gap remains on the tire, making it impossible to use it, but even if everything looks good on the outside, damage from jumping over the curbs violates the geometry and the tires will probably last much less. Nokian Tires found a solution to the problem of damaged sidewalls and developed Aramid Sidewalls technology. The use of heavy-duty aramid fibers increases the sidewall resistance to punctures and cuts, provides even greater tire mileage and gives more confidence to drivers on the road.

And of course, you should pay attention to your driving style. The faster the car rides in a bend and the higher its weight is, the stronger the tires are erased, providing the necessary grip and keeping the car on the trajectory.

The consequences of improper storage

Tire condition can be worsened not only by improper operation, but also by violation of storage requirements. Tires should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated room with normal humidity. In addition, tires without disks cannot be stacked or suspended, and tires on disks should not be stacked vertically. If there are no necessary conditions for storing off-season kits, then you can use the Hakka-hotel service provided by VIANOR tire centers: you can come, change shoes and leave the tires for storage. All that is needed is to make an appointment with the tire center, park the car and wait for Vianor specialists to get winter tires from the warehouse, carry out tire repairs and send them to the summer warehouse.

A quick inspection of the vehicle is completed before the vehicle being loaded, and sales of contract will be provided to sign, and our cash quote paid for the auto. To buy the vehicle, we will require the owner to provide & sign the title of ownership or scrap certificate. Our “Car Removals” in Perth take less than an hour of your day.

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What is the difference between injector and carburettor

The fuel system of a car consists of various components and parts that can perform similar functions. For the engine to work, a fuel supply system is needed, and the solution to such problems is to install a carburetor or injector.

Although these devices have fundamental differences in design, their task is to prepare a combustible mixture.

Depending on the model of the car, one of these systems is installed, and finding out how the injector differs from the carburetor is quite simple.


Carburetor device

Carburetor – is the simplest type of device for feeding and spraying gasoline. The process of mixing fuel with air is performed mechanically, and adjusting the flow of the mixture requires careful tuning.

Thanks to the use of simple mechanisms, the carburetor system is easy to maintain. An experienced motorist can perform such repairs on their own, which gives certain advantages in operation.

For such operations, it is not difficult to purchase a repair kit, and all work is carried out with a standard tool available in the machine.

The carburetor is located on the intake manifold, and its design consists of a float and mixing chambers. For fuel supply, a spray tube is used to connect the chambers to each other.

Fuel is supplied to the float chamber using a gas pump, and a needle filter and float provide a stable supply of gasoline. The mixing chamber is also called air and consists of a diffuser, atomizer and throttle.

When the pistons move, a vacuum is created that ensures the absorption of atmospheric air and gasoline. This mixing ensures stable operation of the engine.


Injector device

Injector – has a more advanced fuel supply control system. All operations are monitored by an electronic system. Such equipment calculates with a high accuracy the portion of fuel necessary for the operation of the engine.

To determine the desired flow rate, readings are taken from a variety of car sensors, and the microcontroller instantly performs the desired calculation.

To understand that a carburetor or injector is better, you should compare their device and give preference to a more practical model.

Fuel is supplied to the injector using special nozzles. This principle of operation differs from carburetor injection, and almost all modern cars are equipped with it.

Fuel is injected into the air flow automatically and depends on the engine operating mode. The nozzle itself opens due to the action of the electromagnet, and closing is done using a spring.

In such a system, constant pressure is maintained by a special valve on the ramp, which dumps excess fuel.

Depending on the car brand and engine features, the following nozzle connection options can be used:

  • Single point (single injection);
  • Multipoint (distributed);
  • Direct (direct injection).

Such a system requires precise control of the injection and depends on the quality of the fuel. For such purposes, the injector uses an electronic control unit that matches the supply of gasoline to the driving conditions.


Fundamental differences between carburetor and injector

The task of the carburetor is to prepare and supply the air-fuel mixture, which is necessary for the operation of the engine. Moreover, such a mixture arrives regardless of the operating mode of the engine. This fuel supply system is characterized by high consumption and severe air pollution by exhaust gases.

You can determine the difference between the injector and the carburetor by examining their principle of operation and the main differences. In an engine equipped with an injector, fuel enters in a precisely calculated dosage, eliminating overspending.

The use of such technology has not only an economic effect. The engine power of an injector controlled increases by an average of 10%.

The dynamics of the car’s movement are also improving, which positively affects its handling.


Carb benefits

The carburetor fuel supply system has passed dozens of years of testing and is entitled to count on the attention of drivers. Its main advantage is the ability to repair in almost any unforeseen situation away from the service center. The advantages and differences of this technology can be easily seen from such indicators:

  • Lower cost of the device and its operating costs;
  • Lack of carbon deposits and relative undemanding to fuel;
  • Easy to repair and low cost of services;
  • Using engine operation to suck in fuel.

The carburetor is sensitive to temperature conditions. Extreme heat or freezing temperatures can complicate engine starting. It is worth noting that the carburetor is considered an outdated technology and does not meet the requirements of EURO 3.

Injector Benefits

Modern electronic fuel delivery systems surpass the carburetor in many ways. In this case, the stable operation of the engine extends the life of the equipment, and makes repairs rare. A significant difference between the carburetor and the injector can be seen by the advantages of the electronic system.

  • Optimum fuel composition in any engine mode;
  • High reliability of an automatic injection system;
  • Better handling while increasing speed;
  • Insensitivity to freezing temperatures;
  • Power advantages and moderate fuel consumption.

The injector has proven itself in various operating conditions. Such equipment is sensitive to fuel quality and dubious refueling should be avoided. Repairing an injector is expensive, but given its resource and reliability, this system is preferable to a carburetor.


Choosing the optimal fuel supply system

Reflecting on the difference between an injector and a carburetor, many motorists come to the conclusion that the electronic system is much more reliable.

However, the re-equipment of any car is economically unprofitable and will only lead to unnecessary costs. The decision to choose a more economical system is relevant when buying a car.

Understanding the differences between the injector and the carburetor is quite simple, and such knowledge is sure to be useful.


The carburetor has already served its term in the market for modern cars. Despite its advantages, the use of an injector is most effective and meets all environmental requirements.

Carburetor engines are mainly used on older machines, but this technology has proven itself well and needs no further development.

The use of an injector has considerable advantages and this system is installed with no choice in any new machine.

If you have any questions – leave them in x under the article. We or our visitors will be happy to answer them.


Injector and carburetor: comparative

More recently, under the hood of any car engine running on gasoline, you could find a carburetor – a device responsible for filling the cylinders with a fuel mixture. Recently, he was replaced by a new device – an injector.

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Faulty car systems

A car is a complex technical device in which many systems interact. Despite the high technology and reliability of a modern car, vehicle breakdowns periodically occur. Even the owner of a new car is not insured against malfunctions , and the warranty period is evidence of this.

When a malfunction occurs, two questions arise:

  • troubleshooting (diagnostics);
  • troubleshooting (repair).

We will try to answer both questions.

The process of assessing the technical condition of the car and identifying faults is called diagnostics . The volume of repair work and, consequently, the costs of its implementation depend on the quality of the diagnosis. Depending on the method of carrying out, the following types of diagnostics are distinguished:

  • diagnostics by external signs (indirect diagnostics);
  • technical diagnostics (direct diagnostics).

A car enthusiast endowed with knowledge of the design of the car is able to independently diagnose by external signs . This is doubly true if you are on the road and to the nearest car service for many kilometers.

Carrying out technical diagnostics requires special knowledge and skills, as well as the use of various devices. For this reason, technical diagnostics are carried out, as a rule, in specialized centers. A variety of technical diagnostics is computer diagnostics . Using special software, a check is made of the electronic components of the car.

Faulty car systems

An experienced driver constantly performs indirect vehicle diagnostics – from the moment of getting into the car to the final stop. This happens almost automatically. During the movement, the main attention is paid to the indications of instrumentation, as well as the characteristics of the movement: engine operation, stability, smoothness, ease of control, braking performance. Deviations from the standard parameters, as a rule, indicate a malfunction.

When diagnosing faults, the following principles must be followed:

  • identification and accounting of all obvious facts, in other words, the establishment of all external signs of malfunction;
  • conducting diagnostics from simple to complex, sequentially eliminating possible malfunctions.

As practice shows, a car system malfunction rarely occurs unexpectedly. External symptoms of malfunction appear gradually. It must be remembered that major malfunctions can be avoided if timely diagnosed and resolved minor malfunctions.

Symptoms of malfunctions corresponding to certain human senses can be divided into the following types:

  • acoustic (hearing);
  • visual (vision);
  • operational (sense of smell and touch).

A particular malfunction may have several external symptoms. It can be both signs of one species, and their combination. For example, damage to the fuel system is accompanied by increased fuel consumption, as well as the smell of gasoline in the cabin and smudges under the car.

On the other hand, several faults may have similar external symptoms. For example, increased fuel consumption indicates a malfunction of the nozzles , as well as improper installation of the ignition timing, low tire pressure, etc.

The largest group consists of acoustic signs of malfunctions : all kinds of noises, knocks, squeaks, hum, rattle, crackling, etc. Sources of extraneous sounds are numerous, but the main ones are malfunctions of the engine, transmission, chassis and steering. Among motorists there is a popular saying: “A good knock will always come out.” Many understand it literally and operate the car to a specific failure. At the same time, the meaning of the saying is somewhat different – every extraneous sound in the car indicates an incipient malfunction. And the sooner we install it, the smaller consequences will be for the car and, accordingly, for our wallet. The most important thing is not to miss the diagnosis.

When there are extraneous sounds in the car, the driver must clearly understand at what sounds (read – faults) you can continue driving, and at which movement is strictly prohibited. For example, most extraneous sounds in the engine do not imply further operation of the car.

To diagnose a malfunction by sound, it is necessary to establish the nature of the sound, the source of propagation, as well as the change in sound when the speed increases and the direction of movement changes. Sound should be heard both inside the car and beyond, including in the engine compartment.

Visual fault diagnosis is made on the basis of the readings of instrumentation on the control panel, as well as through an external inspection of the car. During the external inspection, special attention is paid to the presence of smudges under the car, the condition of tires, and external lighting devices. Periodically conducted external inspection of systems and mechanisms in the engine compartment. Checks the level of oil and special fluids, the presence of smudges on the engine and gearbox, the integrity of the air pipes and electrical wiring.

By operating Symptom are signs was determined by smell and touch. Smells play an important role in the diagnosis of vehicle systems. So, the smell of gasoline in the cabin indicates a malfunction of the fuel system , the smell of exhaust gases (if it is not ahead of KamAZ) – a malfunction of the exhaust system, the smell of burnt engine oil – a malfunction of the lubrication system . A sweet chemical aroma appears when a coolant leaks – a malfunction of the cooling system . A burnt catalyst is accompanied by the smell of rotten eggs. It has its own specific smell and melting wiring of the car’s electrical equipment.

The human body is also actively involved in the diagnosis of malfunctions: arms, legs, “fifth point”, skin integuments. By touch, many faults are determined. For example, jerks during movement indicate a malfunction of the ignition system . Difficulties when shifting gears are manifested in case of a box malfunction . Failures of the suspension elements (springs, shock absorbers) are accompanied by a subsidence of the car. The increased travel of the brake pedal indicates a malfunction of the brake system, etc.

Thus, by external signs, many malfunctions can be determined, but not all, especially in the field of electronics. In many cases, a modern car requires technical diagnostics.

Each driver solves the problem of eliminating the identified malfunction independently. Some troubleshooting does not require special skills. At the same time, it is better to trust serious repair work to specialists.

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Connecting rod

The connecting rod forms an important link between the piston and the crankshaft , converting the translational motion of the former into the rotational motion of the latter.

In the engine, the connecting rod is exposed to significant variable loads, varying from tension to compression. Therefore, it must be durable, tough and light. Cranks are made of steel by casting or hot stamping. On sports cars, titanium alloy connecting rods can be installed.

The design of the connecting rod differs depending on the type of engine and its layout. The length of the connecting rod largely determines the height of the engine. The connecting rod is conditionally divided into three parts: a rod, a piston and a crank head.

The rod rod has, as a rule, an I-section. There are connecting rods with a round, rectangular, cross-shaped, H-shaped section of the rod. A channel is made in the connecting rod rod to supply oil to the piston head bearing.

The piston head is a one-piece eye in which a sleeve is installed with an interference fit – a sliding bearing for rotation of the piston pin. The sleeve is made of bronze or bimetallic (steel with lead, tin). The device of the piston head is determined by the size of the piston pin and the method of attachment. To reduce the mass of the connecting rod and reduce the load on the piston pin, some engines use connecting rods with a trapezoidal shape of the piston head.

The crank head provides a connecting rod with a crankshaft. On most engines, the crank head is detachable, due to the ICE assembly technology. The lower part of the head ( cover ) is connected to the connecting rod using bolts. Less commonly used is a pin or bandage connection of parts of the crank head. The connector can be straight (perpendicular to the axis of the rod) or oblique (at an angle to the axis of the rod). The oblique connector is used mainly on V-engines and allows you to make the engine block more compact.

To counter the transverse forces, the butt surfaces of the crank head are profiled. Distinguish gear, castle (rectangular ledges) connection. The most popular currently is the connection of the parts of the head obtained by the method of controlled splitting, the so-called split connector. Fault provides high precision joining parts.

The thickness of the crank head determines the length of the cylinder block. This is especially true for V- and W-shaped engines. For example, the thickness of the lower head of the Audi W12 connecting rod from Audi is only 13 mm.

A crank bearing, consisting of two liners, is placed in the crank head. Inserts are made multilayer – two-, three-, four- and even five-layer. The most popular two- and three-layer inserts. The two-layer insert is a steel base on which an anti-friction coating is applied. In a three-layer insert, an insulating pad separates the steel base and the antifriction layer.

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Muffler in Cars

The muffler is an important structural element of the exhaust system, without which the operation of a modern car is simply impossible. The car muffler performs the following main functions:

  • exhaust gas noise reduction;
  • energy conversion of exhaust gases, reduction of their speed, temperature, pulsation.

The exhaust gases leaving the engine cylinders have high pressure. When exhaust gases travel through the exhaust system, sound waves are generated that propagate faster than the gases. The muffler converts the energy of sound vibrations into thermal energy, thereby reducing the noise level to a certain (predetermined) value. However, with the use of a silencer, backpressure is created in the exhaust system, which leads to a slight decrease in engine power.

The muffler uses several noise reduction technologies:

  • expansion (narrowing) of the flow;
  • change in flow direction;
  • interference of sound waves;
  • absorption of sound waves.

The expansion of the flow is realized through several chambers of different volumes, separated by partitions. Allows you to effectively absorb low-frequency sound vibrations. Along with the expansion in the silencer, the flow is narrowed by means of a diaphragm opening (throttle). Used to suppress high-frequency noise.

In the silencer, with the exception of exhaust silencers, a change in the direction of flow of the exhaust gas is provided. The angle of rotation of the stream is in the range of 90-360 °, which is achieved by damping the medium and high-frequency sound vibrations.

The interference of sound waves, depending on the nature of their superposition, leads to an increase (constructive interference) or a decrease (destructive interference) in the amplitude of the oscillations. Both types of interference are used in the silencer. The technology is implemented using perforations in the silencer pipes. By changing the size of the holes and the volume of the chamber surrounding the pipe, it is possible to damp sound vibrations in a wide frequency range.

When sound waves pass through a special sound-absorbing material, they are absorbed. This method is effective in damping high-frequency sound vibrations.

To achieve the greatest effect, these technologies in silencers are used, as a rule, in combination.

In modern cars, one to five silencers are installed, mostly two. The muffler closest to the engine is called the front (front) muffler or resonator. It is followed by the main (rear) muffler. For each specific car model and engine brand, its own set of silencers is used.


The resonator serves to preliminary reduce the noise level and balance the pulsations of the exhaust gas flow. Structurally, the resonator is a perforated tube placed in a metal casing. To increase the efficiency of vibration damping in the pipe, a throttle hole is made.


The main silencer provides ultimate noise reduction. It has a more complex design. The metal casing accommodates several perforated tubes. The case is divided by partitions into 2-4 cameras. Some cameras may be filled with sound-absorbing material. In the main silencer, the exhaust gas stream repeatedly changes its direction – the labyrinth silencer.

Of all the structural elements of the exhaust system, the muffler is the most modernized (tuned). When tuning the exhaust system, the so-called exhaust pipe silencer (one exhaust pipe to all chambers without changing the direction of flow). Such a silencer has less back pressure, but it does not give a significant increase in engine power. The main advantage of the once-through muffler is the “noble” or “sporty” sound of the car (who likes it more).


The in-line silencer design combines a stainless steel housing in which a perforated pipe is wrapped in a steel mesh and sound-absorbing material. Steel mesh provides mainly the protection of sound-absorbing material from blowing. Fibreglass is used as a sound-absorbing material. In a direct-flow muffler, sound waves freely pass through the holes of a pipe, a metal grid and are absorbed by fibreglass ( converted into thermal energy ).


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Diesel particulate filter

On passenger cars with a diesel engine, a diesel particulate filter has been used as part of the exhaust system since 2000. With the introduction of Euro-5 standards in January 2011, the use of a particulate filter in passenger cars with a diesel engine is mandatory.


In a diesel engine, soot is formed during incomplete combustion of fuel. Soot particles have a size of 10 nm to 1 μm. Each particle consists of a carbon core with which hydrocarbons, metal oxides, sulphur and water are connected. The specific composition of soot is determined by the engine operating mode and fuel composition.

In the exhaust system, the particulate filter is located behind the catalytic converter. In a number of designs, the particulate filter is combined with an oxidation-type catalytic converter and is located immediately behind the exhaust manifold where the temperature of the exhaust gases is maximum. It is called a catalytic coated particulate filter.

The main structural element of the particulate filter is the matrix, which is made of ceramic (silicon carbide). The matrix is ​​placed in a metal case. The ceramic matrix has a cellular structure consisting of channels of small cross-section, alternately closed on one and the other side. The sidewalls of the channels have a porous structure and play the role of a filter.

The cells of the matrix are square in cross-section. More perfect are the input cells of an octagonal shape. They have a larger surface area (compared to the outlet cells), allow more exhaust gases to pass through and provide a longer diesel particulate filter life.

In the operation of a particulate filter, two successive stages are distinguished: filtration and soot regeneration. During filtration, soot particles are captured and deposited on the filter walls. The greatest difficulty for retention is represented by soot particles of small size (from 0.1 to 1 μm). Their share is small (up to 5%), but these are the most dangerous emissions for humans. Modern particulate filters trap these particles as well.

Soot particles accumulated during filtration create an obstacle for exhaust gases, which leads to a decrease in engine power. Therefore, periodically cleaning the filter from accumulated soot or regeneration is required. Distinguish between passive and active regeneration of the particulate filter. In modern filters, as a rule, passive and active regeneration is used.

Passive regeneration of the particulate filter is carried out due to the high temperature of the exhaust gases (about 600 ° C), which is achieved when the engine is running at maximum load. Another way of passive regeneration is the addition of special additives to the fuel, which provide soot combustion at a lower temperature (450-500 ° C).

Under certain engine operating conditions (light load, traffic in the city, etc.), the exhaust gas temperature is not high enough and passive regeneration cannot occur. In this case, the active (forced) regeneration of the particulate filter is carried out.

Active regeneration of the particulate filter is carried out by forcibly increasing the temperature of the exhaust gases for a certain period of time. The soot accumulated in this process is oxidized (burned out). There are several ways to increase the temperature of the exhaust gases during active regeneration:

  • late fuel injection;
  • additional fuel injection on the exhaust stroke;
  • the use of an electric heater in front of the particulate filter;
  • injection of a portion of fuel immediately in front of the particulate filter;
  • heating of exhaust gases by microwaves.

The design of the particulate filter and the systems ensuring its operation are constantly being improved. Currently, a particulate filter with a catalytic coating and a particulate filter with a system for introducing additives into the fuel are most in demand.

Catalytic coated diesel particulate filter

The catalytic coated diesel particulate filter is used on Volkswagen vehicles and a number of other manufacturers. The catalytic coated particulate filter distinguishes between active and passive regeneration.

With passive regeneration, the soot is continuously oxidized due to the action of the catalyst (platinum) and the high temperature of the exhaust gases (350-500 ° C). The chain of chemical transformations during passive regeneration has the following form:

  • nitrogen oxides react with oxygen in the presence of a catalyst to form nitrogen dioxide;
  • nitrogen dioxide reacts with soot particles (carbon) to form nitric oxide and carbon monoxide;
  • nitric oxide and carbon monoxide react with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide.


Active regeneration occurs at a temperature of 600-650 ° C, which is created using a diesel control system. The need for active regeneration is determined on the basis of an estimate of the throughput of the particulate filter, which is carried out using the following sensors of the diesel control system: air flow meter ; exhaust gas temperature to the particulate filter; exhaust gas temperature after the particulate filter; differential pressure in the particulate filter.

Based on the electrical signals of the sensors, the electronic control unit additionally injects fuel into the combustion chamber, and also reduces the air supply to the engine and stops the exhaust gas recirculation. In this case, the temperature of the exhaust gas rises to the value required for recirculation.

Diesel particulate filter with a fuel injection system

The diesel particulate filter with a fuel injection system is a development of the PSA concern (Peugeot-Citroen). Since the pioneers in the use of additives for regeneration are the French, the name FAP filter (from the French Filtre a Particules) was assigned to the filter. A similar approach is implemented in the particulate filters of other automakers (Ford, Toyota).

The system uses an additive containing cerium, which is added to the fuel and ensures the burning of soot at a lower temperature (450-500 ° C). But even this temperature of the exhaust gases cannot always be reached, therefore, active regeneration of the diesel particulate filter is periodically performed in the system. The diesel particulate filter is usually installed separately behind the catalytic converter.


The additive is stored in a separate tank with a capacity of 3-5 litres, which is enough for 80-120 thousand kilometres (filter life). Structurally, the tank may be in the fuel tank or outside it. The additive level in the tank is monitored using a float type sensor. The additive is supplied to the fuel tank using an electric pump. The additive is supplied at each refuelling of the fuel tank in proportion to the refuelling volume of fuel. The start and duration of the additive supply is regulated by the engine control unit (in some designs, by a separate electronic unit).

A side effect of the use of the additive is that during combustion it settles in the form of ash on the walls of the filter and is not removed from it, which reduces the resource of the device. The service life of a modern particulate filter is 120,000 km. Manufacturers declare the release of a filter with a resource of 250,000 km in the near future.

Due to the high cost, the particulate filters that have exhausted the resource are usually not replaced by car owners but removed, followed by a flashing of the engine management system.

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Catalytic converter in Cars

The catalytic converter (commonly referred to as the catalyst) in the exhaust system is designed to reduce the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere with exhaust gases by converting them into harmless components. The catalytic converter is used both on gasoline and diesel engines.

Three-way Catalytic Converter


It is used in gasoline engines running on the stoichiometric composition of the mixture (the mixture provides complete combustion of fuel). The design of the three-way catalytic converter includes a carrier block, thermal insulation and housing.

The main element of the catalytic converter is a carrier block, which serves as the basis for the catalysts. The carrier block is made of special refractory ceramics. Structurally, the carrier block consists of many longitudinal hundred cells, which significantly increase the area of ​​contact with the exhaust gases.

The surface of the cells is a thin layer of applied catalyst substances, which include three components: platinum, palladium and rhodium. Catalysts accelerate the flow of chemical reactions in the catalyst.

Platinum and palladium are oxidative catalysts. They contribute to the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons (CH) to water vapour, carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide, CO) to carbon dioxide. Rhodium is a reducing catalyst. It reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) to harmless nitrogen. Thus, three catalysts reduce the content of three harmful substances in the exhaust gas.

The carrier block is placed in a metal case. Between them is usually a layer of thermal insulation. An oxygen sensor is installed in the converter housing.

The prerequisite for starting the catalytic converter is to reach a temperature of 300 ° C. The ideal temperature range is from 400 to 800 ° C. At this temperature, 90% of harmful substances are retained. Temperature above 800 ° C causes sintering of metal catalysts and cell cells of the carrier block.

The catalytic converter is usually installed directly behind the exhaust manifold or in front of the muffler. The first installation of the converter contributes to its rapid heating, but then the device is subjected to high thermal loads. In the second case, additional measures are required for the quick warm-up of the converter, which increases the temperature of the exhaust gases:

  • regulation of the ignition moment in the direction of delay;
  • increase in idling;
  • variable valve timing;
  • several fuel injections per cycle;
  • air supply to the exhaust system.

To increase the efficiency, a three-component catalytic catalyst installation scheme is used, divided into two parts: the primary converter (located behind the exhaust manifold), the main converter (located under the bottom of the car).

Diesel Catalytic Converter

The diesel engine catalyst (DOC) provides for the oxidation of the individual components of the exhaust gas with oxygen, which is present in sufficient quantities in the diesel exhaust.

When passing through a catalytic converter, harmful substances (carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons) are oxidized to harmless products (carbon dioxide and water vapour). In addition, the catalyst almost completely eliminates the unpleasant odour of diesel exhaust gases.

Oxidative reactions in the catalyst also create undesirable products. So, sulphur dioxide is oxidized to sulphur trioxide with the subsequent formation of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid gas combines with water molecules, resulting in the formation of solid particles – sulphates. They accumulate in the converter and reduce its performance.

To remove sulphates from the converter, the engine management system starts the desulfation process, in which the catalytic converter is heated to temperatures above 650 ° C and purged with rich exhaust gases (with a lack of air, up to its complete absence).

The catalytic converter of a diesel engine is not used to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. This function in a diesel engine is performed by the exhaust gas recirculation system or a more advanced selective catalytic neutralization system.

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Lubrication system

Lubrication system (another name – lubrication system ) is designed to reduce friction between the associated parts of the engine. In addition to performing the main function, the lubrication system provides cooling of engine parts, removal of carbon deposits and wear, and protection of engine parts from corrosion.

The engine lubrication system includes an engine oil pan with an oil intake, an oil pump, an oil filter, an oil cooler, which are interconnected by highways and channels.


The engine oil pan is for storing oil. The oil level in the sump is monitored using a dipstick, as well as using a level and oil temperature sensor.

The oil pump is designed to pump oil into the system. The oil pump can be driven by the engine crankshaft, camshaft or additional drive shaft. Gear pumps have found the greatest application on engines.

The oil filter is used to clean oil from wear and deposits. Oil is cleaned with a filter element, which is replaced with an oil change.

An engine oil cooler is used to cool engine oil. The oil in the radiator is cooled by a fluid stream from the cooling system.

The oil pressure in the system is controlled by a special sensor installed in the oil line. An electrical signal from the sensor is sent to the signal lamp on the dashboard. On cars, an oil pressure gauge can also be installed.

The oil pressure sensor can be included in the engine control system, which, when a dangerous decrease in oil pressure, turns off the engine.

On modern engines, an oil level sensor and a corresponding warning lamp on the instrument panel are installed. In addition, an oil temperature sensor can be installed.

To maintain a constant working pressure in the system, one or more pressure reducing (overflow) valves are installed. Valves are installed directly in the elements of the system: oil pump, oil filter.

The principle of the lubrication system

In modern engines, a combined lubrication system is used, in which part of the parts is lubricated under pressure, and the other part is sprayed or by gravity.

The engine is lubricated cyclically. When the engine is running, the oil pump pumps oil into the system. Under pressure, the oil is fed into the oil filter, where it is cleaned of mechanical impurities. Then the oil flows through the channels to the main and connecting rod necks (bearings) of the crankshaft, camshaft bearings, upper connecting rod support for lubricating the piston pin.

Oil is supplied to the working surface of the cylinder through openings in the lower support of the connecting rod or using special nozzles.

The rest of the engine is spray lubricated. The oil that flows through the gaps in the joints is sprayed by the moving parts of the crank and gas distribution mechanisms. This creates an oil mist that settles on other parts of the engine and lubricates them.

Under the action of gravity, the oil flows into the pan and the lubrication cycle is repeated.

Some sports cars use a dry-sump lubrication system. In this design, the oil is stored in a special oil tank, where it is pumped from the crankcase by the pump. The engine crankcase is always left without oil – “dry crankcase”. The use of this design ensures stable operation of the lubrication system in all modes, regardless of the position of the oil intake and the oil level in the crankcase.

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Everything about hybrid cars

A hybrid car is a vehicle driven by a hybrid propulsion system. A distinctive feature of the hybrid power plant is the use of two or more energy sources and their corresponding engines, which convert energy into mechanical work. Some sources use the term hybrid engine, which is technically incorrect.

Despite the variety of energy sources (thermal energy of gasoline or diesel fuel, electricity, the energy of compressed air, the energy of compressed liquefied gas, solar energy, wind energy, etc.), a combination of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor is used on an industrial scale on hybrid vehicles.

The main advantage of a hybrid car is a significant reduction in fuel consumption and emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, which is achieved by:

  • coordinated work of the internal combustion engine and electric motor;
  • the use of high-capacity batteries;
  • using braking energy, the so-called regenerative braking, which converts the kinetic energy of motion into electricity.

At the same time, many other innovative developments are used in hybrid cars, which allow saving fuel and saving the atmosphere, including: a system for changing the valve timing ; stop-start system ; exhaust gas recirculation system ; exhaust gas heating system; improved aerodynamics; electric drive of auxiliary devices (water pump, air conditioning , power steering , etc.); tires with reduced rolling resistance.

It should be noted that the greater effect of hybrid cars is observed when driving in the urban cycle, which is characterized by frequent stops, idling. When driving at a constant high speed (suburban cycle) hybrids are not so effective.

Depending on the nature of the interaction between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor, the following schemes of hybrid power plants are distinguished: serial, parallel, serial-parallel.

Hybrid car serial circuit

In a sequential circuit, the car is driven by an electric motor. The internal combustion engine is connected only with a generator, which in turn feeds the electric motor and charges the battery.

In a hybrid vehicle with a sequential powerplant scheme, it is usually possible to connect to the electrical network at the end of the trip. Such cars are called Plug-in Hybrid (literally – a plug – in hybrid ). The implementation of this function involves the use of high-capacity batteries (lithium-ion batteries), which leads to a reduction in the use of internal combustion engines and, accordingly, reduction of harmful emissions.

Plug-in hybrid

Representatives of the Plug-in Hybrid are Chevrolet Volt, Opel Ampera cars. They are also called extended-range electric vehicles ( Extended Range Electric Vehicle, EREV ). These cars have the ability to move up to 60 km on battery power and up to 500 km on the energy of a generator driven by an internal combustion engine.

Hybrid Car Parallel Circuit

In a parallel circuit, the electric motor and internal combustion engine are installed in such a way that they can work both independently and jointly. This is achieved by connecting the internal combustion engine, electric motor and gearbox using automatically controlled clutches.

Hybrid cars using a parallel circuit are called Mild Hybrid (literally moderate or soft hybrid ). They use an electric motor of low power (about 20 kW), which provides, as a rule, additional power when accelerating a car. In most designs, the electric motor located between the engine and the gearbox also serves as a starter and alternator.

Mild hybrid

Well-known hybrid cars with a parallel circuit are Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid, BMW Active Hybrid 7, Volkswagen Touareg Hybrid, Hyundai Elantra Hybrid. The pioneer in this field is Honda and its system Integrated Motor Assist, IMA (literally – integrated engine assistant).

During the operation of the IMA system, the following characteristic modes can be distinguished:

  1. Work from the electric motor.
  2. Joint operation of the internal combustion engine and the electric motor.
  3. Work from the internal combustion engine while charging the battery from the electric motor in generator mode.
  4. Charging the battery in regenerative braking mode.

Hybrid car serial-parallel circuit

In a series-parallel circuit, the internal combustion engine and the electric motor are connected through a planetary gearbox. In this case, the power of each engine can be transmitted to the drive wheels simultaneously in a ratio of 0 to 100% of the rated power. In contrast to the parallel circuit, a generator has been added to the serial-parallel circuit, providing energy to the motor.

Full hybrid

Hybrid cars using a serial-parallel circuit are called Full Hybrid (literally – a full hybrid ). Famous full hybrids are Toyota Prius, Lexus RX 450h, Ford Escape Hybrid. Toyota and its Hybrid Synergy Drive , HSD , dominate this segment of the hybrid car market.

The power plant of the HSD system is an internal combustion engine (connected to the planet carrier of the planetary gearbox), an electric motor (connected to the ring gear of the planetary gearbox), and a generator (connected to the sun gear of the planetary gearbox).

The internal combustion engine operates according to the Atkinson cycle, in which mediocre power indicators are realized at low revs, and accordingly, greater fuel efficiency and lower harmful emissions are achieved.

The following modes are distinguished in the operation of the Hybrid Synergy Drive system:

  1. Electric vehicle mode, in which the internal combustion engine is turned off and the battery is powered by the electric motor.
  2. Driving mode with a constant (cruising) speed, at which the power from the internal combustion engine is distributed between the drive wheels and the generator. The generator, in turn, feeds an electric motor, the power of which is added to the power of the internal combustion engine. If necessary, the battery is charged.
  3. Forced mode, in which an electric motor powered by a battery is connected to the internal combustion engine, providing a power pulse.
  4. An economical mode in which the battery powers the generator. The generator converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, slowing the rotation of the internal combustion engine. At the same time, the engine torque does not decrease, but fuel efficiency is achieved.
  5. Braking mode, in which the electric motor works as a generator, and the electricity is used to rotate the sun gear in the opposite direction, slowing down the speed of the car.
  6. Battery charging mode, carried out using the internal combustion engine and generator.

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Everything you need about the engine flywheel

The flywheel refers to several engine systems at once and performs the following functions in them:

  • reduction of uneven rotation of the crankshaft (flywheel – a structural element of the crank mechanism );
  • transmission of torque from the engine to the gearbox (flywheel – drive clutch disc );
  • transmission of torque from the starter to the crankshaft of the engine (flywheel – driven gear of the launch system gearbox ).

Smoothing of pulsations of the torque is carried out due to the periodic accumulation and return of kinetic energy by the flywheel. Energy is stored during the stroke of the piston and is consumed at other engine strokes, incl. to remove pistons from dead spots. The more cylinders in the engine, the longer the piston stroke in each of them takes longer, therefore, the torque of such an engine is more uniform, and the mass of the flywheel can be reduced.

The flywheel is mounted at the end of the crankshaft near the rear main bearing. This is, as a rule, the most powerful bearing in the engine, since it must withstand the weight of the flywheel and the loads associated with its operation.

The following types of flywheel design are distinguished:

  • solid;
  • two-mass;
  • lightweight.
Engine flywheel

The flywheel of a continuous design found the greatest distribution on cars . This is a massive cast-iron disk with a diameter of 30 to 40 centimeters. A steel gear rim is pressed onto the outer surface of the disk, which allows the crankshaft to rotate when the engine is started using the starter. On one side of the flywheel, a hub is made for attaching to the flange of the crankshaft, the other side plays the role of a clutch plate.

When the engine is running at different speeds, the crankshaft is constantly twisted and untwisted, i.e. subjected to torsional vibrations. The engine uses torsional vibration dampers of various designs. One of these devices is a dual-mass flywheel (another name is a damper flywheel ), which has been used on automobile engines since 1985.

Two-mass flywheel device

Two-mass flywheel device

The flywheel includes two disks connected by means of a spring-damper system, which allows to completely isolate the transmission from torsional vibrations and to ensure uniform operation of its elements. With the use of a dual-mass flywheel, there is no need for a damping device in the clutch disc.

The advantages of the dual-mass flywheel are damping, vibration reduction, noise isolation, gear shifting convenience, reducing synchronizer wear, protecting the transmission from overload and even fuel economy. On the other hand, the intensive work of the two-mass flywheel leads to increased wear of the spring-damper system and even breakdown of its main element – the arc spring. All this restrains the mass use of a damper flywheel on engines.

Current trends in the development of automotive engines, such as downsizing (reducing engine volume and mass while maintaining power) and downsizing (expanding the engine torque range with the ability to work at low revs), have demanded a new level of damping. Since 2008, a two-mass flywheel with a pendulum damper has been used on engines .

To eliminate uneven rotation of the crankshaft in the low-speed range, a centrifugal pendulum is installed on the flywheel together with the arc spring. It creates its own vibrations, which in antiphase are superimposed on smoothed vibrations after the arc spring and completely dampens them.

The centrifugal pendulum is made in the form of goods located around the circumference of the flywheel. At low engine speeds, loads of the pendulum swing more strongly, because the centrifugal forces acting on them are small. With increasing speed, the amplitude of the oscillations of the cargo decreases and their role in damping the oscillations decreases.

A lightweight flywheel is used when tuning the engine. The redistribution of the mass of the flywheel to the edges of the disk allows to reduce its mass to 1.5 kg and in turn to reduce the moment of inertia. With the use of a lightweight flywheel, the engine reaches its maximum speed faster, accordingly, it has better acceleration dynamics, and an increase in power of up to 5% is also observed.

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